Types of Analyzers

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Understanding Different Analyzers Types

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Gas analyzers are scientific devices that measure the concentration of a particular gas in a mixture of multiple gases.  These devices use different types of sensors or technologies, including gas chromatography, electrochemical, non-dispersive infrared, and thermal conductivity sensors (to name but a few), to generate analysis results.

Gas analyzers are used in many industries such as oil refining, manufacturing, waste management, and agribusiness to help proprietors and managers monitor gas levels in their operations.

There are many reasons an operator would want to know what gaseous components are in their process or atmosphere. They can include product and process quality, environmental compliance, employee safety, and efficiency.

Below are some common gas analyzers that Mangan Analyzer Engineering can set up, install, and maintain.

NOx Analyzers

NOx analyzers measure the concentration of nitric oxide in the process gas stream. They are typically configured with a catalytic, molybdenum, or stainless-steel converter to also monitor nitrogen dioxide and report total nitrogen oxides.

They are used in flue gas monitoring applications and combustion equipment like engines, boilers, and furnaces.

The most commonly used technology is Chemiluminescence (CLD). This technique measures the light intensity of the chemiluminescent reaction of nitric oxide in ozone with a photodiode.

Other techniques are Non-dispersive Infrared (NDIR) and Direct Absorbance. Mangan’s experienced analyzer engineers can set up NOx analyzer models and units for hazardous environments.

SO2 Analyzers

SO2 analyzers measure sulfur dioxide in the process gas stream and can be configured with sample conditioning components to allow them to interpret various groups of sulfur species.

A gas like sulfur dioxide can harm plants and animals on land and in water due to its acidifying effect on the environment.

The most used technology is UV Fluorescence. This technique measures the light intensity of SO2 with a photomultiplier tube (PMT), which has been stimulated with ultraviolet light.

Other techniques are Electroconductivity and NDIR, Non-dispersive Ultraviolet and Dispersive Ultraviolet. Our engineers can design, install, and maintain SO2 analyzers that use infrared technology to detect the concentration of sulfur dioxide in process streams and hazardous environments.

O2 Analyzers

Oxygen is the third most common element in the universe, and it is critical for life. However, its presence or absence plays a crucial role in many industrial processes.

There are many techniques used to measure high-level (in the percent range) oxygen concentrations.

They include zirconium oxide cell and different techniques such as exploiting the paramagnetic properties of oxygen and using the electrochemical cell. Our engineers can set up and maintain O2 analyzers to verify oxygen content in combustion air oxygen enrichment, flue gas analysis, oxygen deficiency analysis, and other applications.

Oxygen analyzers are available in continuous, portable, and multi-gas models with various configurations.

CO Analyzers

Carbon monoxide is a colorless and odorless toxic gas formed from incomplete carbon combustion.

The most used technique is NDIR or Gas Filter Correlation which compares the amount of infrared light absorbed by the sample against a known reference.

Other techniques include electrolytic cell. Our engineers can design, install, and maintain CO analyzers for the process heater safety shutdown application and continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) in your facility to monitoring the level of CO to atmosphere.

We can also create CO analyzers systems that you can use with oxygen and temperature sensors to evaluate burner performance and combustion efficiency.

PID Analyzers

In environments where the detection of low concentrations of volatile organic compounds or other gases is critical, PID (Photoionization Detector) analyzers are the tools of choice.

They function by ionizing the gas sample using ultraviolet light. This ionization emits photons, which further ionize the target gas. The resultant current provides a measure of the gas’s concentration. PID analyzers are indispensable in industrial hygiene, environmental monitoring, and ensuring safety in volatile organic compound-prone settings.

NH3 Analyzers

When it comes to monitoring ammonia (NH3) concentrations in air, water, or other mediums, NH3 analyzers are the go-to instruments. Employing techniques such as spectroscopy or electrochemical sensing, they can effectively detect and measure ammonia.

Given ammonia’s significance in agriculture and its potential environmental implications, these analyzers find extensive use in various sectors, from agricultural to industrial and environmental contexts.

H2S Analyzers

For industries or settings where the toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas might be a concern, H2S analyzers are vital. They detect and quantify the presence of H2S in samples. Various detection methods, from electrochemical detection to tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, are in their arsenal.

Since H2S, with its characteristic rotten egg odor, is prevalent in places like oil and gas operations and sewage treatment plants, having an H2S analyzer ensures safety and compliance with health standards.

PM2.5 Analyzers

To tackle concerns about fine particulate matter in the air, PM2.5 analyzers are employed. These instruments are designed to detect and quantify particles that have diameters of 2.5 micrometers or smaller. They often operate based on light scattering techniques, wherein particulates scatter a light beam, and this scattering is then measured to determine PM2.5 concentrations.

Given the severe health risks associated with PM2.5 inhalation, these analyzers are paramount in air quality management and environmental monitoring.

VOC Analyzers

Where industries or labs are concerned about the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can be pollutants harmful to health and the environment, VOC analyzers come into play. VOCs are organic compounds with high vapor pressures even at room temperatures. Often, techniques like Gas Chromatography (GC) or Photoionization Detection (PID) are employed by VOC analyzers to detect and quantify these compounds.

Keeping VOC emissions in check is crucial, especially in environmental and industrial settings, to ensure that they remain within permissible levels.

CO2 Analyzers

CO2 analyzers are used in many industrial applications like steel-making operations, agriculture, gasification, combustion engines, research and development, landfill gas production, food processing for monitoring and quality control.

The analyzers are also required to monitor stack emissions on a continuous basis and provide EPA and local air management agencies with emissions data.

The most commonly used technique is NDIR or Gas Filter Correlation.

We design, install, and maintain infrared CO2 analyzers systems for the given application.

Note that the gas analyzers above are some examples of the analyzers which the Mangan analyzer engineering team has integrated together with all other equipment and components as required and delivered to the customers after the successful factory acceptance tests.

The Mangan team has also provided the fully integrated systems with analyzers with different technologies such as Gas Chromatography, Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Mass Spectrometry, etc.

Gas Chromatograph (GC)

Gas Chromatography is an analytical technique used to separate and measure desired components (either organic or inorganic analytes) of process streams.

The analytical instrument that performs gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph (GC). Typically, an inert carrier gas transports an exceedingly small amount of sample gas into packed columns or capillary columns to separate the components of interest.

The separated components pass through a detector (or detectors) to quantify them. Commonly used carrier gases are argon, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Commonly used detectors are flame ionization (FID), thermal conductivity (TCD) and flame photometric (FPD). Selection of carrier gases and detectors depends on the application specific requirements.

GC can be used for any application where the target components are vaporizable, sufficiently separable through columns, and measurable on suitable detectors. The GC technique is used in nearly all major industries such as pharmaceutical, food and beverage, refining, chemicals, safety and environmental monitoring, and steel.

We design and integrate the GC system consisting of sample probe, heated tube bundle, sample conditioning system, utilities including cylinder rack, and all other accessories to make the GC function as required.

Note that the gas analyzers above are some examples of the analyzers which the Mangan analyzer engineering team has integrated together with all other equipment and components as required and delivered to the customers after the successful factory acceptance tests.

The Mangan team has also provided the fully integrated systems with analyzers with different technologies such as Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Mass Spectrometry, etc.

In-Situ Analyzers

An in-situ analyzer is a device that is used to measure the properties or composition of a material or substance while it is still in its original location or environment.

This can be done for liquids, gases, or solids and can be used for a variety of applications such as monitoring water quality, measuring air pollution, or analyzing industrial processes.

In-situ analyzers can be portable or stationary, and may use various techniques such as spectroscopy, electrochemistry, or optical sensing to obtain measurements. The advantage of in-situ analyzers over traditional laboratory analysis is that they can provide real-time or near real-time results and do not require the sample to be removed from its environment.

TDL Analyzers (Tunable Diode Laser Analyzers)

TDL (Tunable Diode Laser) Analyzer is a type of gas analyzer that uses a laser beam to measure the concentration of a specific gas in a sample.

TDL analyzers are highly accurate and can measure gases in low concentrations. They can be used in a wide range of industrial and research applications, such as monitoring emissions from industrial processes, measuring the composition of gases in the atmosphere, and analyzing gases in industrial plants.

TDL analyzers work by using a laser beam to excite a sample gas, causing it to fluoresce or absorb light at a specific wavelength. By measuring the intensity of the light absorbed or emitted, the analyzer can determine the concentration of the gas in the sample. The laser wavelength can be adjusted, or tuned, to detect a specific gas, allowing for selective measurements of individual gases in a mixture and are known for their high accuracy and sensitivity, even in low concentrations.

Stack Flue Gas Ammonia Analyzer

Where the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system is installed to control the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions in the stack flue gas to the atmosphere for the SCAQMD compliance, the ammonia injection and control system and distribution grid are also installed as part of the SCR system.

Typically, a ratio of 1 pound of mole of ammonia to 1 pound mole of NOx is required to maintain optimum conversion. However, excess ammonia always results in unreacted ammonia through the SCR reactor and subsequently appears in the stack flue gas (termed “ammonia slip”). 

Normally, the ammonia slip should be limited to 10 ppm or less. Excessive ammonia injection may result in increased quantities of NOx in the flue gas.  To monitor the ammonia slip amount, a diode laser gas analyzer is typically selected, which is based on a measuring principle of the specific light absorption of different gas components.  Its in-situ cross-duct sensors are installed on the stack nozzles with a sensor control unit mounted in the associated CEMS shelter.  It is suitable for fast and no-contact measurement of gas concentrations of the stack flue gas. Once installed, it will help monitor the SCR performance along with the NOx measurements.    

Choose Mangan Analyzer Engineering for Your Analyzer Needs

We offer full-service analyzer engineering services from analyzer specification to commissioning support.

Also, our experienced staff of electrical, mechanical, and controls engineers has 20+ years of industry experience in designing, setting up, installing, and maintaining analyzer systems and CEMS.  Contact Mangan Analyzer Engineering today.